One suggestion led me to begin to design this term’s project over again. Since I had this decision,  I have been searching about how to use this curvilinear forms deservedly. I found some structures inspiring me. One of them is: Longchamp store stairs by Thomas Heatherwick (below). There is a curvilinear form which acts like both a staircase and a ceiling to a space. It fits the ish condition we worked on previously this semester. Note: The ish term was expressing the multipurpose of elements.

The other one: Le Galilee office buildings (above)It gave me an idea that I can use an element both as a wall and a ceiling by curling it up. So, I can literally say I have changed my mind and the design. The new one is about to come.

If you are interesting, you can also check the site on below to see the twisted buildings around the world.


First Attempt

On my first attempt to attain what is suggested in pre-jury, I produced the design you see above. By keeping the twisted form, that is found strong, constant, I worked on two extension ‘arms’ of the form. This twisted form is the climax point, which offers visitors different experience, during their circulation in the design. While approaching the climax from these two ‘arms’ there is visual continuity but the physical dispersionby introducing more than one way. Also, I did not want visitors to access the climax directly, I wanted them to experience the ‘arms’ then arrive there. However, there is still something I think negative; the arms are the identical to each other somehow. That is to say that as the arms disperse further from the climax, I introduced some angled forms and the experience of walking in high, then, I brought visitors to the end which has rectangular form in both arms.

1350-1500: Architecture in Renaissance Italy & Early Ottoman Architecture

Architecture in Renaissance Italy

The idea of “Renaissance”, at the same time, the movement to revive ancient Greco-Roman culture, grew naturally in 14th and 15th century Florence, Italy. Leaders of the Italian merchant republics educated their young as humanists, so that humanism spread to the arts and architecture by emulating the all’antica, ancient details from Greco-Roman culture. In Florence, beside the artists and architects copied antiquity, they were also impatient to discover the underlying principles of design to apply their models. There, architects discovered harmonious proportions which are linked the classical orders. Together with influences of humanism, new built palaces and churches changed the character of Italian cities and gave them a more uniform scale and geometric basis. Meantime, painters guided the perspective vision, a scientific mode of seeing that put all the parts in relation to whole. The emergence of perspective vision accompanied the development of the principal public space of Italian city.

During the 14th century, the wealthiest merchant families spent their collective resources for the construction of great civic projects, including the public palace (now called Palazzo Vecchio), the new cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore (Duomo), the public grain marker of Or San Michele (later turned into a church), the city walls, and the bridges.

Most public works in late 14th century Florence, used rounded arches, symmetrical places bays, and harmonious proportions. Plus, the Florentines added a new way of seeing, treating buildings as freestanding objects in proportional scale.

Florence’s greatest civic project, the cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, constructed in 1296. It has a simple Gothic style with its quadripartite ribbed vaults spanning the nave and two side aisles. A few years later, its length of the nave was extended and its area was outlined for a huge octagonal dome over the crossing. The dome intended to surpass the domes of the rival cities of Pisa and Siena. In 1376, the commune wanted the dimensions of the cupola to be as wide as the Pantheon in Rome and nearly twice its height. The architect, Filippo Brunelleschi took charge of the project. He built the new dome without falsework (temporary framework structures used to support a building during its construction), and by contriving a structure that supported itself during the process of construction. Filippo Brunelleschi conserved the dome’s pointed arches and ribs from the Gothic program of a few generations earlier, he added several all’antica motifs to exterior. There were rounded tribunes placed between the octagonal apses. Each of these had five shell-capped niches were flanked by pairs of Corinthian half columns and they were demonstrating Brunelleschi’s familiarity with ancient monuments. So, the cupola were containing innovation from Gothic structure while also displaying new elements of the revival of ancient Roman style. Continue reading 1350-1500: Architecture in Renaissance Italy & Early Ottoman Architecture

1200-1350 in Architecture


Italian Maritime Republics initiated fluid trade relations across the Mediterranean with Byzantines and Islamic ports. Thus, the contact across the Mediterranean affected the development of European taste. The decoration of imported silks, porcelains, and jewelry stimulated the architectural imagination. The arch windows of Byzantine Constantinople reappeared on the facades along the Grand Canal in Venice. On mosques and madrasas, the Ablaq (the alternating bands of contrasting colored masonry) used.

Pisa city’s fortunes soared when it played a key role in the transport and supply so that the constructions of the new cathedral, baptistery, and campanile were financed. Pisa’s Duomo (in Italian cathedral) complex was standing in open space planted with grass and remained outside of the old city limits. The Pisan’s aim was to create it as similar to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Later, they made some additions and the dome was completed as similar to contemporary domes in the eastern Mediterranean area. The Pisan Baptishery had clear reference to the Anastasis in Jerusalem. The Campanile, or Leaning Tower of Pisa were revealing the structural problems of the marshy soil of Pisa. The last significant expression of Pisan patronage came with the tiny chapel of Santa Maria della Spina, located on the banks of the river.

Florence’s major church was the Baptishery of San Giovanni. It had inspirations from the Panteon in Rome with its walls, rose as a thick, hollowed out base to support a double-shelled dome. Later, Florence constructed its second public palace; Palazzo Vecchio at the end of the 13th century. It appeared like a fortress with its heavy, rusticated masonry and high windows.

During the 13th century Mamluk Cairo became a city of domes. Cairo’s first dome, which is built for Shagar al-Durr (woman patron of Cairo) in the 1250s, crowned the funerary monument to her first husband. The monument inspired a series of domed mausoleums. The sultan Qalawun, began his toms as the culminating element of a madrasa complex in 1284. At this time, while the inspirations usuallt taken from the East to the West, it changed and the Windows of Qalawun’s mausoleum appeared like those of Europen cathedrals. Furthermore, the Mamluk emirs of Cairo spent their fortunes on great and showy tombs and religious structures as memorials. The Mamluks had no particular style of their own, and thus they synthesized local craft traditions with ideas taken from conquered or admired peoples. Also, the Mamluks placed domes over the great houses of Cairo. The grandest Mamluk monument; the Madrasa of al-Nasir Hasan. The dome and the sheer elevations of the madrasa of this complex were the most prominents of the age. Continue reading 1200-1350 in Architecture

On This Earth – PreJury

Throughout the semester, we will be working on a design intervention on Tuz Gölü to make it better land, enrich its experience in diverse and multiple ways by making the use of our studies on Göreme under the concept “grafting”.

In my project, I have inspirations from both Tuz Gölü and Göreme and the observations I have got from these places helped me to define a strategy and my designs as well.

 “Some people think design means how it looks. But of course, if you dig deeper, it’s really how it works.” -Steve Jobs

Determining a design strategy that is capable of guiding our actions that aim enrichment, diversity and multiplicity, in relation to the present qualities, was crucial besides the design.

Diagrams which support my strategy.

I am going to explain my all ideas now: In Göreme, I have observed that the spaces is burried in caves as a general impression. It gave me idea about how to design. The area has inclined surfaces and this condition was making people to move a lot and at the same time, was creating changes in human bodily experience. So, it can be said that there is an essential change experience. After, I brought some spatial experiences which are associated with my strategy with the help of the catalog, to the lake from Göreme. In Tuz Gölü, I analyzed that there is radical change in both bodily and visual experience. While visitors walk towards lake from the road level, their view is blocked inside the facilities which are positioned nearby the lake and the view opens suddenly right after you exit the facilities. So, there is a change in visitors’ visual experience. In the same way, visitors’ bodily experience changes since they experience the lake’s huge flat horizontality then, they start to walk in a fairly inclined surface to arrive the road. Plus, the texture of surfaces, which visitors walk on their way to the lake, changes. As visitors walk, they have a chance to experience man-made, natural, hard and soft surfaces one by one. By considering all these, in order to enrich the experience in diverse and multiple ways, I specified a strategy. Strategy is ‘creating radical transitions: Emphasizing the radical change in human experience both visually and bodily’ since I analyzed that in such a homogenous place visitors look for variation, change. I achieved my strategy by interrupting the experience suddenly and introducing a different one right after in radical manner. I produced diagrams which explain these transition ideas. Some of them are my analysis from Göreme, some are the variations I proposed. Continue reading On This Earth – PreJury

Understanding The Structural System

In order to understand what is essentially the structural system of one-story library building, we constructed a conceptual model by making the use of architectural elements with their given scales and dimensions. The model has braces as lateral load resisting system, columns, beams, walls, windows.

Early Christian Italy & Byzantium


After Emperor Constantine promoted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire, Rome became Christian and Constantine started to build religious structures, churches. While constructing religious structures and churches the Roman methods were followed.

Constantine erected new city walls, one of the largest bath complexes, and an imperial palace with a basilica in the northern capital of Trier, in southwestern Germany. For the Basilica at Trier, the used material was brick and the roof was supported by wooden. Basilica had an axis, rectangular form and its side walls rose on tall arches similar to those of an aqueduct. Constantine built St. John’s in the Lateran, in 315 which has the feature of being the first imperially sponsored church. By the way, Lateran is the shared names of several architectural projects throughout the Rome and the layout of the Lateran followed a five-aisle longitudinal plan. Constantine, also, constructed a separate octagonal Lateran baptishery behind the apse (apse: state of the roofs being timber beams rather than vaults) as he commissioned, in 315. Additionally, in 326, he sponsored the most important church in Christendom, Old St. Peter’s. Continue reading Early Christian Italy & Byzantium