Author Archives: Hande Sığın

Archigram, «Manifesto» in Archigram 1 (May 1961)

Since we, as a group mentioned Paolo Soleri’s considering on “arcology” architecture+echology. So, the designs of an urban environment within a rural setting promoting social interaction, accessibility, density, use of on-site resources and heavy mass construction, reduction of waste, and access to the natural environment. On the contrary, Archigram were not essentially ecological in nature but championed the high-tech and lightweight approach towards a modular technology within the urban setting.

Related to this subject, I wanted to share this presentation prepared by me at the 2nd-year architecture school for the History of Architecture class. It is about Archigram, «Manifesto» in Archigram 1 (May 1961).



Timeline of Critical Regionalism & The Forces Surrounding It

After the year 1918, WW1, it was a time where entire destroyed Europe had an opportunity to build a new city and settle on a big scale. Following years, Modern Architecture showed up focusing on abstraction, standardization, and serial production seeking a homogeneous international identity. During WW2, together with international style, which has become a fashion trend shaping the institutional buildings in America, has spread all over the world from America and has led to the emergence of similar buildings everywhere.

The years following, the interest in regionalist architecture began to increase, especially in America, where the search for a ‘friendlier’ architecture was taking place. Firstly this resulted in a higher interest for vernacular architecture, secondly the term sustainable became relevant. One of the main places where this happened was the MoMa in New York, giving place to exhibitions dedicated to modern ways of thinking, but also questioning the modernity of regionalism. This time began with 1928 CIAM era.

Lewis Mumford argues regionalism, in general, is characterized by an understanding of architecture such as local culture, climate, topography data, building materials and techniques specific to a region. Regionalism should be regarded as an approach.

Frampton and his mentor Ricoeur states in universal civilization and national cultures, 1961, that the phenomenon of universalization is seen as the development of humanity on the one hand, on the other hand, it destroys not only the traditional culture but also the great civilizations and cultures, and the contradiction begins from here.

For the rest of the timeline of critical regionalism & the forces surrounding it & more and more, please view the photo above.

Additionally, you can see the case studies (prepared by us) related to the critical regionalism below.

Cases around the world in detail. / Cases in Turkey in detail.

The following quotation from the interview with Álvaro Siza, briefly expresses where we’re standing, what’s our approach as a group.

VB: I want to talk about your architecture as an approach. Kenneth Frampton said that you are a part of the “Critical regionalist” movement. And by “Critical regionalism” he understands “an approach to architecture that strives to counter the placelessness and lack of identity of the International Style,” and an approach that “also rejects the whimsical individualism and ornamentation of Postmodern architecture.” What do you think about being placed into this category, “Critical regionalism?” Do you agree? Because you also have a very strong individualistic character, so it is a mixture of things.

AS: Yes, I agree with being categorized as such. When critics talk about critical regionalism the word that is overlooked is critical. What Frampton meant, I think, was not that architecture should go in the direction of closing its global discourse, but that such discourse should encourage continuity of local cultural traditions, as opposed to celebrating the International Style, which was becoming placeless.

VB: And so you see your work as a continuation of the local traditions.

AS: Yes. But don’t forget that all traditions either change and transform or they die.

VB: You said, “Tradition is important when it contains moments of change.”

AS: Yes, tradition does not mean closure, immobility. Quite the opposite, the value of traditions is in being open to innovations. Tradition is not the opposite of innovation, it is complimentary. Tradition comes from successive interchanges. Isolated cultures that try to preserve their traditions without being open to new ideas collapse. Every traditional culture is influenced by outside cultures. When I was growing up there were very few centers of global culture – Paris, London, New York, and the rest was a periphery. Portugal was on the periphery and it was closed until the 1974 revolution, after which the country was rediscovered. Frampton was one of the first critics who came here and he traveled to other parts of Europe, including Spain, Greece, and Scandinavian countries. It was the time when architects were interested in rediscovering non-mainstream architecture. In this context, he was perhaps the first critic who insisted on the importance of identity.


  • Green written texts were received from the text Greening Architecture: The Impact of Sustainability by Phillip James Tabb and A. Senem Deviren
  • Modern Architectural Theory: A Historical Survey, 1673-1968 by Harry Francis Mallgrave
  • The Future of Place, 2011 by Moore Ruble Yudell
  • Mimarlıkta Eleştirel Bölgeselcilik ve Turgut Cansever, 2006 by Ufuk Demirgüç
  • Architectural Regionalism: Collected Writings on Place, Identity, Modernity, and Tradition by Vincent Canizaro (editor)
  • In Pursuit of an Avant Regionalism, 2014 by Ajri McArthur
  • Rethinking of Critical Regionalism in High-Rise Buildings, 2006 by Nima Zahiri, Omid Dezhdar and Manouchehr Foroutan
  • Re-Reading Critical Regionalism by Kelly Carlson-Reddig University of North Carolina at Charlotte
  • Critical Regionalism: Studies on Contemporary Residential Architecture of Khartoum-Sudan, Research Thesis, 2015 by Maha Bani
  • A Critical Regionalist Approach Towards Balancing Tradition and Modernity in Housing in North-East Morocco, Research Thesis, 2016, Salima Benaissa 

Climate Change as an Architectural Design Problem

Climate Change as an Architectural Design Problem

Martin Heidegger questions how changes in senses and perception of people are affected by the instant changes of nature on “…poetically man dwells…”.

The most powerful issue of the time is interaction and relation between human and nature. The need for protection from natural hazards and the need to adapt to nature throughout history have created architecture by beginning with shelters and caves. Space turned into place together with people’s occupation. Then, this adaptation condition turned into an occupationAnd, people started to make modification on nature and environment for themselves. Throughout globalization; modern life and the capitalist system made people ideal and standardizedAt this point, we’re questioning is that the universal ideal? standard? normal? Capitalism traps the green and manages the humankind.

The conflict between the universal idealism and local specificities as the duality between culture and ecology battle over an urban area that geographer Pierce Lewis describes as ‘an inevitable city on an impossible site‘.

Climate change is the biggest challenge facing our planet. There has never been a more important time to understand how to make the best use of local natural resources and to produce buildings that connect to ecosystems and livelihoods and do not rely on stripping the environment or transporting materials across the globe.

‘…disconnected grows between what we think necessary and what we know is valuable?…’


Together with my group members, we discussed the issue of shading on Arizona State University Tooker House for our Building Technologies in Architecture course.

We defined the architectural elements used for shading in this building specifying its material and evaluated the type of the shading, the angle of the sunshade, and the use of material with reference to the geographical location and climatic conditions in which it is situated. Additionally, we discussed the effect of these elements and their material on heat loss/heat gain, view, daylight, glare, air movement. Continue reading


A screen, any screen was introduced as an initiator, a tool of learning or a tool to design a space for learning. Considering a screen as an initiator, the various operations were applied on to it such as multiplying and resizing it in both dimensions and in different mediums. The poster below shows the operation studies, applied on a screen, leading to changes in human experience, space perception of human, human positioning to the screen, the relations between human & the screen, the screen & space, human & space.


My very first house

I have already posted about this semester’s project before. Here is updated version and the final status!

My proposal is strongly based on Adolf Loos’ idea of spatial plan commonly known as Raumplan to a degree. The plan has several stepped levels and room sequences that are all visually or physically connected, and there are spaces at each level with different functions.


Raumplan House, Spain, 2015, Alberto Campo Baeza.

I refer to a particular house which a version of Raumplan is employed. It is Raumplan House, Spain, 2015, Alberto Campo Baeza. This house has three spiraling and diagonal interconnected spaces. I wanted to reinterpret this triple in my proposal since it provides anyone to see other two spaces exactly by standing in one, and anyone can able to see two different directions while standing in the middle space.

Also, the spaces are only visually connected and the level difference is high since the house has small site and needed to shaped vertically.  While adapting this three diagonal spaces to my house proposal, I have decided to decrease the level differences and provide access from one space to another.

Therefore, this is the way how spaces come together.


Möbius House, Het Gooi, 1993-1998, UNStudio. Diagrams.

I have Möbius House as my second primary reference.

What I have learned about Möbius House is that there are two programmatic lines which are positioned side by side horizontally and they interlock in a specific part. This ‘bow tie’ like configuration of two programmatic lines, which has sequence of spaces inside, made me think that what if this two lines of Möbius House was designed with Raumplan?


Diagrams. *It is about combining two of these diagonal space organization by learning from Möbius House.

Then, unlike the original configuration of Möbius lines, in my proposal the lines combined vertically (on top of each other) because of the vertical space organization of Raumplan House.


Exploded axonometric drawing of my house proposal.

After two lines started to position vertically I have reinterpreted the intersection part.

While Möbius House’s intersection part is dense, I have the exact opposite in my proposal. I designed it as a vertical void, as a vertically shared intersection part. Therefore, the form of levelling of this intersection part became different.

How I achieved this void?

Since I have two programmatic lines come from Raumplan. I planned that

One line has opening to this direction (kind of interior garden) while other opening has towards another direction. So, the different surface I designed below and the upper opening and the skylight act like this vertical shared intersection together.


House K., Germany, 2005, Titus Benhard. Site Plan.

While continuing my research, I came across to a house called House K., Germany, 2005, Titus Benhard. The house is in a suburban place. Its site is quite elevated from the lake level approximately 61 meters, and the distance between lake and the house is 330 meters.

I wanted to refer to this house’s ‘zoning spaces’ approach and how this approach works with the site. The house has two parts as front and back with a long separator axis between them. While the stepped arrangement of the spaces in back is in part a response to the sloped nature of the site, the spaces in front especially open out towards lake. The lake is on south-east direction.

Considering these, I have decided to locate my house proposal on to the site of House K. and apply these back & front conditions to my proposal as bottom & top. Therefore, I designed the bottom line as an open space reaches from the entrance (kitchen) towards the front garden and decrease gradually over several split levels. This means , on one hand the bottom line follows the slope of terrain, has spaces which are directly related with garden, and has zones such as kitchen, living (big spaces). On the other hand, The top line open towards lake and establishes a hierarchical sequence of rooms. Spaces of that line face with lakei and has rooms which have same or similar functions such as private rooms, sleeping, robing, child room (middle spaces).

site plan

Site plan of My House proposal

IMG_5619Other responses to the site: I changed the actual direction of North in order to provide better climate conditions and qualities to spaces. So, the house spreads east west direction and spaces face with south, southeast, southwest. There are spaces on the north direction such as studio, pantry, garage. Approach/access from road and main entrance are from northeast.

Secondary References: I refer to Möbius House’s kitchen and its positioning regarding the studio, garage, and storage places. The ceilings (upper slabs) of some bottom spaces became terraces to the upper spaces as in Möbius House. Further, the tectonic of my house proposal based on Möbius House’s materials: concrete + glass.


Plan drawings of my house proposal.


1/100 Section drawings.



#notes from “A Pattern Language”

Alexander, C. & Ishikawa, S. & Silverstein, M. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford University Press, USA.

  • Nobody wants fast through (nonstop) traffic going by their homes.
  • How important it is to be in touch with water.
  • Each parking lot surrounded by garden walls, hedges, fences, slopes, trees so that from outside cars are almost invisible.
  • Place entrances and exits of the parking lots in such a way that they fit naturally into the pattern of pedestrian movement and lead directly, without confusion, to the major entrances to individual buildings.
  • An outdoor space is positive when it has a distinct and definite shape, as definite as the shape of a room. (Defined outer space!)
  • At present, people take for granted that it is possible to us indoor space which is lit by artificial light; and buildings therefore take on all kinds of shapes and depths.
  • Isolated buildings are symptoms of a disconnected sick society.
  • Try to form new building as continuations of the older buildings.
  • The shape of a buildings has a great effect on the relative degrees of privacy and overcrowding in it, and this in turn has a critical effect on people’s comfort and well-being. Long thin rectangles, branched shapes, tall narrow towers increase the separation between places inside the building and therefore increase the relative privacy people are able to get within a given area.
  • The entrance must be places in such a way that people who approach the building see the entrance or some hint of where entrance is, as soon as they see the building itself.
  • If a garden is too close to the street, people will not use it because it is not private enough. But if it is too far from the street, then it will not be used either, because it is too isolated. Do not place the garden fully in front of the house, nor fully to the back. Instead, place it in some kind of hall-way position, side-by-side with the house, in a position which is half hidden from the street and half-exposed. (Balance!).
  • You might create a transition by changing the texture of the path, so that you step off the sidewalk onto a grave path and then up a step or two and under trellis. (Make a transition space between the street and the front door). Bring the path which connects street and entrance through this transition space, and mark it with a change of light, a change of sound, a change of direction, a change of surface, a change of level, perhaps by gateways which make a change of enclosure, and above all with a change of view. (Approach!).
  • The entrance nearest the parking spot always becomes the “main” entrance, even if it was not planned that way. Secondary entrances: patio, garden door, teenager’s private entrance.
  • Place the parking place for the car and the main entrance, in such a relation to each other that the shortest route from the parked car into the house is always through the main entrance. Make the parking place for the car into an actual room which makes a positive and graceful place where the car stands, not just a gap in the terrain.
  • Lay out the spaces of a building so that they create a sequence which begins with the entrance and the most public parts of the building, then leads into the slightly more private areas, and finally to the most private domains.
  • If the rooms are facing south, a house is bright and sunny and cheerful. The building gets an orientation toward the south. The north facing shady back yards were used primarily for storing junk.
  • Always place the building to the north of the outdoor spaces that go with them, and keep the outdoor spaces to the south. Never leave a deep band of shade between the building and the sunny part of the outdoor. (A breakfast nook that looks directly into a garden which is sunny in the morning, a workshop that gets full southern exposure during the middle of the day.)
  • Place the most important rooms along the south edge of the building, and spread the building out along the east west axis. Arrange spaces along the south, southeast, and southwest of the building to capture the sun. For example; give the common area a full southern exposure, bedrooms southeast, porch southwest. For most climates, this means the shapes of the building elongated east-west.
  • As far as possible, avoid the use of corridors and passages. Instead, use public rooms and common rooms as rooms for movement and gathering. To do this, place the common rooms to form a chain, or loop, so that it becomes possible to walk from room to room – and so that private rooms open directly off these public rooms (generosity of movement). In every case, give this indoor circulation from room to room a feeling of great generosity, passing in a wide and ample loop around the house, with views of fires and great windows.
  • The passages are broad, sunlit, with seats in them, views into gardens, more or less continuous with rooms.
  • Treat the whole staircase as a room (or if it is outside, as a courtyard). Wide steps on bottom=people coming down the stairs become the part of the action in the room while they are on stair.
  • Create alternating areas of light and dark throughout the building to increase contrast.
  • Give those parts of the house where people sleep, an eastern orientation, so that they wake up with the sun and light.
  • Rooms which have “light on two sides”=two sided rooms (one sided rooms=uncomfortable). Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then, place windows in these outdoor walls so that light falls into every room from more than one direction.
  • Make the north face of the building a cascade which slopes down to the ground, so that the sun which normally casts a long shadow to the north strikes the ground immediately besides the building.
  • On the first floor keep windows high enough to be private.
  • A house feels isolated from the nature around it, unless its floors are interleaved directly with the arch that is around the house. Connect the building to the earth around it by building a series of paths, terraces, steps around the edge. Place them deliberately to make the boundary ambiguous, so that it is impossible to say exactly where the building stops and earth begins.
  • Shape the nearby buildings in respond to trees, so that the trees themselves and the trees and buildings together form places which people can use.
  • Alcoves. Make small places at the edge of any common room. These alcoves should be large enough for two people to sit, chat or play and sometimes large enough to contain a desk or a table.
  • A building in which the ceiling heights are all the same is virtually incapable of making people comfortable. Raise the floor level with steps, instead of lowering the ceiling. Vary the ceiling height continuously throughout the building, especially between rooms which open into each other, so that the relative intimacy of different spaces can be felt. In particular, make ceilings high in rooms which are public or meant for large gatherings, and very low in rooms or alcoves for one or two people.
  • Amount of enclosure (half solid-half open). Right balance between open, flowing space and close cell-like space. No one room entirely closed. No space totally connected to another. Use combinations of columns, half-open walls, porches, indoor windows, sliding doors, low sills, French doors, sitting walls, and so on, to hit the right balance.
  • Anyone who has to work in noise, in offices with people all around, needs to be able to pause and refresh himself with quiet in a more natural situation (a beautiful case is the Cambridge: quiet court stretching down to the River Cam). To meet this need, we may conceive all buildings as having a front and back. If the front is given to the street life –cars, shopping paths, delivery- than the back can be reserved for quiet. Build a walk along this quiet back, far enough from the building so that it gets full sunlight, but protected from noise by walls and distance and buildings. If possible place the backs where there is water.
  • Make a clear distinction between 3 kinds of homes. Those on quiet backwaters (on twisting paths, these are themselves physically secluded). Those on busy streets (many people passing by all day long, these are relatively exposed to the passersby). Those that are more or less in between. The in between houses may then be located on the paths half-way between the other two.