Author Archives: Hande Sığın


Together with my group members, we discussed the issue of shading on Arizona State University Tooker House for our Building Technologies in Architecture course.

We defined the architectural elements used for shading in this building specifying its material and evaluated the type of the shading, the angle of the sunshade, and the use of material with reference to the geographical location and climatic conditions in which it is situated. Additionally, we discussed the effect of these elements and their material on heat loss/heat gain, view, daylight, glare, air movement.

Ass01_Eda Nur Abanozoğlu_Pelin Bütüner_Miray Yüksel_Hande Sığın.jpg



A screen, any screen was introduced as an initiator, a tool of learning or a tool to design a space for learning. Considering a screen as an initiator, the various operations were applied on to it such as multiplying and resizing it in both dimensions and in different mediums. The poster below shows the operation studies, applied on a screen, leading to changes in human experience, space perception of human, human positioning to the screen, the relations between human & the screen, the screen & space, human & space.


My very first house

I have already posted about this semester’s project before. Here is updated version and the final status!

My proposal is strongly based on Adolf Loos’ idea of spatial plan commonly known as Raumplan to a degree. The plan has several stepped levels and room sequences that are all visually or physically connected, and there are spaces at each level with different functions.


Raumplan House, Spain, 2015, Alberto Campo Baeza.

I refer to a particular house which a version of Raumplan is employed. It is Raumplan House, Spain, 2015, Alberto Campo Baeza. This house has three spiraling and diagonal interconnected spaces. I wanted to reinterpret this triple in my proposal since it provides anyone to see other two spaces exactly by standing in one, and anyone can able to see two different directions while standing in the middle space.

Also, the spaces are only visually connected and the level difference is high since the house has small site and needed to shaped vertically.  While adapting this three diagonal spaces to my house proposal, I have decided to decrease the level differences and provide access from one space to another.

Therefore, this is the way how spaces come together.


Möbius House, Het Gooi, 1993-1998, UNStudio. Diagrams.

I have Möbius House as my second primary reference.

What I have learned about Möbius House is that there are two programmatic lines which are positioned side by side horizontally and they interlock in a specific part. This ‘bow tie’ like configuration of two programmatic lines, which has sequence of spaces inside, made me think that what if this two lines of Möbius House was designed with Raumplan?


Diagrams. *It is about combining two of these diagonal space organization by learning from Möbius House.

Then, unlike the original configuration of Möbius lines, in my proposal the lines combined vertically (on top of each other) because of the vertical space organization of Raumplan House.


Exploded axonometric drawing of my house proposal.

After two lines started to position vertically I have reinterpreted the intersection part.

While Möbius House’s intersection part is dense, I have the exact opposite in my proposal. I designed it as a vertical void, as a vertically shared intersection part. Therefore, the form of levelling of this intersection part became different.

How I achieved this void?

Since I have two programmatic lines come from Raumplan. I planned that

One line has opening to this direction (kind of interior garden) while other opening has towards another direction. So, the different surface I designed below and the upper opening and the skylight act like this vertical shared intersection together.


House K., Germany, 2005, Titus Benhard. Site Plan.

While continuing my research, I came across to a house called House K., Germany, 2005, Titus Benhard. The house is in a suburban place. Its site is quite elevated from the lake level approximately 61 meters, and the distance between lake and the house is 330 meters.

I wanted to refer to this house’s ‘zoning spaces’ approach and how this approach works with the site. The house has two parts as front and back with a long separator axis between them. While the stepped arrangement of the spaces in back is in part a response to the sloped nature of the site, the spaces in front especially open out towards lake. The lake is on south-east direction.

Considering these, I have decided to locate my house proposal on to the site of House K. and apply these back & front conditions to my proposal as bottom & top. Therefore, I designed the bottom line as an open space reaches from the entrance (kitchen) towards the front garden and decrease gradually over several split levels. This means , on one hand the bottom line follows the slope of terrain, has spaces which are directly related with garden, and has zones such as kitchen, living (big spaces). On the other hand, The top line open towards lake and establishes a hierarchical sequence of rooms. Spaces of that line face with lakei and has rooms which have same or similar functions such as private rooms, sleeping, robing, child room (middle spaces).

site plan

Site plan of My House proposal

IMG_5619Other responses to the site: I changed the actual direction of North in order to provide better climate conditions and qualities to spaces. So, the house spreads east west direction and spaces face with south, southeast, southwest. There are spaces on the north direction such as studio, pantry, garage. Approach/access from road and main entrance are from northeast.

Secondary References: I refer to Möbius House’s kitchen and its positioning regarding the studio, garage, and storage places. The ceilings (upper slabs) of some bottom spaces became terraces to the upper spaces as in Möbius House. Further, the tectonic of my house proposal based on Möbius House’s materials: concrete + glass.


Plan drawings of my house proposal.


1/100 Section drawings.



#notes from “A Pattern Language”

Alexander, C. & Ishikawa, S. & Silverstein, M. (1977). A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction. Oxford University Press, USA.

  • Nobody wants fast through (nonstop) traffic going by their homes.
  • How important it is to be in touch with water.
  • Each parking lot surrounded by garden walls, hedges, fences, slopes, trees so that from outside cars are almost invisible.
  • Place entrances and exits of the parking lots in such a way that they fit naturally into the pattern of pedestrian movement and lead directly, without confusion, to the major entrances to individual buildings.
  • An outdoor space is positive when it has a distinct and definite shape, as definite as the shape of a room. (Defined outer space!)
  • At present, people take for granted that it is possible to us indoor space which is lit by artificial light; and buildings therefore take on all kinds of shapes and depths.
  • Isolated buildings are symptoms of a disconnected sick society.
  • Try to form new building as continuations of the older buildings.
  • The shape of a buildings has a great effect on the relative degrees of privacy and overcrowding in it, and this in turn has a critical effect on people’s comfort and well-being. Long thin rectangles, branched shapes, tall narrow towers increase the separation between places inside the building and therefore increase the relative privacy people are able to get within a given area.
  • The entrance must be places in such a way that people who approach the building see the entrance or some hint of where entrance is, as soon as they see the building itself.
  • If a garden is too close to the street, people will not use it because it is not private enough. But if it is too far from the street, then it will not be used either, because it is too isolated. Do not place the garden fully in front of the house, nor fully to the back. Instead, place it in some kind of hall-way position, side-by-side with the house, in a position which is half hidden from the street and half-exposed. (Balance!).
  • You might create a transition by changing the texture of the path, so that you step off the sidewalk onto a grave path and then up a step or two and under trellis. (Make a transition space between the street and the front door). Bring the path which connects street and entrance through this transition space, and mark it with a change of light, a change of sound, a change of direction, a change of surface, a change of level, perhaps by gateways which make a change of enclosure, and above all with a change of view. (Approach!).
  • The entrance nearest the parking spot always becomes the “main” entrance, even if it was not planned that way. Secondary entrances: patio, garden door, teenager’s private entrance.
  • Place the parking place for the car and the main entrance, in such a relation to each other that the shortest route from the parked car into the house is always through the main entrance. Make the parking place for the car into an actual room which makes a positive and graceful place where the car stands, not just a gap in the terrain.
  • Lay out the spaces of a building so that they create a sequence which begins with the entrance and the most public parts of the building, then leads into the slightly more private areas, and finally to the most private domains.
  • If the rooms are facing south, a house is bright and sunny and cheerful. The building gets an orientation toward the south. The north facing shady back yards were used primarily for storing junk.
  • Always place the building to the north of the outdoor spaces that go with them, and keep the outdoor spaces to the south. Never leave a deep band of shade between the building and the sunny part of the outdoor. (A breakfast nook that looks directly into a garden which is sunny in the morning, a workshop that gets full southern exposure during the middle of the day.)
  • Place the most important rooms along the south edge of the building, and spread the building out along the east west axis. Arrange spaces along the south, southeast, and southwest of the building to capture the sun. For example; give the common area a full southern exposure, bedrooms southeast, porch southwest. For most climates, this means the shapes of the building elongated east-west.
  • As far as possible, avoid the use of corridors and passages. Instead, use public rooms and common rooms as rooms for movement and gathering. To do this, place the common rooms to form a chain, or loop, so that it becomes possible to walk from room to room – and so that private rooms open directly off these public rooms (generosity of movement). In every case, give this indoor circulation from room to room a feeling of great generosity, passing in a wide and ample loop around the house, with views of fires and great windows.
  • The passages are broad, sunlit, with seats in them, views into gardens, more or less continuous with rooms.
  • Treat the whole staircase as a room (or if it is outside, as a courtyard). Wide steps on bottom=people coming down the stairs become the part of the action in the room while they are on stair.
  • Create alternating areas of light and dark throughout the building to increase contrast.
  • Give those parts of the house where people sleep, an eastern orientation, so that they wake up with the sun and light.
  • Rooms which have “light on two sides”=two sided rooms (one sided rooms=uncomfortable). Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then, place windows in these outdoor walls so that light falls into every room from more than one direction.
  • Make the north face of the building a cascade which slopes down to the ground, so that the sun which normally casts a long shadow to the north strikes the ground immediately besides the building.
  • On the first floor keep windows high enough to be private.
  • A house feels isolated from the nature around it, unless its floors are interleaved directly with the arch that is around the house. Connect the building to the earth around it by building a series of paths, terraces, steps around the edge. Place them deliberately to make the boundary ambiguous, so that it is impossible to say exactly where the building stops and earth begins.
  • Shape the nearby buildings in respond to trees, so that the trees themselves and the trees and buildings together form places which people can use.
  • Alcoves. Make small places at the edge of any common room. These alcoves should be large enough for two people to sit, chat or play and sometimes large enough to contain a desk or a table.
  • A building in which the ceiling heights are all the same is virtually incapable of making people comfortable. Raise the floor level with steps, instead of lowering the ceiling. Vary the ceiling height continuously throughout the building, especially between rooms which open into each other, so that the relative intimacy of different spaces can be felt. In particular, make ceilings high in rooms which are public or meant for large gatherings, and very low in rooms or alcoves for one or two people.
  • Amount of enclosure (half solid-half open). Right balance between open, flowing space and close cell-like space. No one room entirely closed. No space totally connected to another. Use combinations of columns, half-open walls, porches, indoor windows, sliding doors, low sills, French doors, sitting walls, and so on, to hit the right balance.
  • Anyone who has to work in noise, in offices with people all around, needs to be able to pause and refresh himself with quiet in a more natural situation (a beautiful case is the Cambridge: quiet court stretching down to the River Cam). To meet this need, we may conceive all buildings as having a front and back. If the front is given to the street life –cars, shopping paths, delivery- than the back can be reserved for quiet. Build a walk along this quiet back, far enough from the building so that it gets full sunlight, but protected from noise by walls and distance and buildings. If possible place the backs where there is water.
  • Make a clear distinction between 3 kinds of homes. Those on quiet backwaters (on twisting paths, these are themselves physically secluded). Those on busy streets (many people passing by all day long, these are relatively exposed to the passersby). Those that are more or less in between. The in between houses may then be located on the paths half-way between the other two.

House: in Reference

No more original genii! Let us repeat ourselves again and again!”, Loos, 1914.

This semester we are working on a Project called House: in Reference. We are on our way to design houses as a collective production by referring to any house in any degree. Now, I am going to explain the narrative of my design systematically, beginning from the case studies.

I started by researching Adolf Loos’ popular theory: Raumplan.

 “My architecture is not conceived in plans, but in spaces (cubes). I do not design floor plans, facades, sections. I design spaces. For me, there is no ground floor, first floor etc…. For me, there are only contiguous, continual spaces, rooms, anterooms, terraces etc. Storeys merge and spaces relate to each other. Every space requires a different height: the dining room is surely higher than the pantry, thus the ceilings are set at different levels. To join these spaces in such a way that the rise and fall are not only unobservable but also practical, in this I see what is for others the great secret, although it is for me a great matter of course. Coming back to your question, it is just this spatial interaction and spatial austerity that thus far I have best been able to realise in Dr Müller’s house” Adolf Loos: Shorthand record of a conversation in Plzen (Pilsen), 1930

Basically it can be said, that for Loos two things were important within his Raumplan. Firstly a differentiation of the height of the ceiling in differently used rooms, with a strong link to the privacy which the room should provide. Secondly the creation of room sequences with the different rooms, with a special importance on the visual connections of the rooms. That means precisely that more private annexes with lower ceilings are spatially connected through stairs, visually-view through etc. with higher more public rooms. The different heights of the ceiling cause a break-through of the established horizontal layering of the house. This leads to complex space structures which were made available by as well complex vertical circulation by stairs.

Casa Raumplan

Raumplan House: oncatenation of spiraling double spaces. Image Ref.

For the reason that his creation of Raumplan introduces a new point of view for the composition and connection of spaces, I wanted to refer to it in my house design. Therefore, I searched houses which apply Raumplan in order to understand how other architects refer to Adolf Loos & the plan. Among the many case studies I have examined, I decided to refer to the Raumplan House, Spain, 2015, Alberto Campo Baeza. This is a house where this known spatial mechanism (Raumplan) is employed, with the concatenation of spiraling double spaces. Each two double spaces are connected by vertical displacement so that a diagonal space is created. If, as we go up, we turn 90 degrees and connect it with the other two, and if we continue to go up turning a further 90 degrees, we get an amazing spatial structure: the concatenation of three spiraling diagonal spaces.  Also, by the help of this diagonal space configuration, we are able to experience the two different directions in one space.

As a result of this design, this allowed the integration of double-heighted spaces that were seemingly intersecting one another. The adaption of this spatial layout forms what is known as the ‘raumplan’, where two double height spaces become linked by a simple vertical displacement, forming a diagonal space.

As one makes their way up the spaces of the Raumplan House, there is a 90 degree turn which connects with another two spaces, and this continues as one goes up a further 90 degree turn. This smart spatial structure creates the concatenation of three spiraling diagonal spaces, that mimic the form of a corkscrew.

In my house proposal I wanted to refer to the relation of spaces, the concatenation of three spiraling diagonal spaces but, I transformed it a little so that the spaces could be connected through stairs.

In another source, I have read that Möbius House, Het Gooi, 1993-1998, UNStudio is in the opposite position to Loos’ Raumplan. Rather than consisting of strictly functional separated rooms and intermediate areas, the Möbius house exemplifies the seamless transition of these spaces. Since Möbius House is known with its popular Möbius strip, it sculpturally and programmatically developes as an endless loop.

möbius strip

Möbius House: two interlocking lines. Image Ref.

Two interlocking lines, and the double-locked torus of Möbius House integrates program, circulation and structure seamlessly, as in opposition to Raumplan. This contrast between Möbius House and Raumplan House let me think that, what if one of the interlocking lines of Möbius House was designed with Raumplan.

At this point, I tried to apply the condition of what if one of the interlocking lines of Möbius house become the concatenation of three spiraling diagonal spaces as happened in Raumplan House. Then, unlike the original configuration of Möbius House, the properties (vertical space configuration) of adapted Raumplan directed me to the way of combining the lines of Möbius House vertically. Therefore, the horizontal positioning of two lines of Möbius House originally, turned into the vertical positioning, so that I obtained spaces which have position on top of each other.


House K. Plan. Image Ref.

Another house I studied the House K., Germany, 2005, Titus Bernhard is based on the screening principle. Rigid order (according to my interpretation it refers to Raumplan line in my proposal) and simultaneous flexibility of use (acc. to my interpretation it is the other line from Möbius House in my proposal) create an imaginary axis (acc. to my interpretation it is the space where two lines intersect in my proposal) in House K., which separates the living space into served and servant rooms using structural wall slabs and roof lights. Spaces and volumes can serve as a pattern for order, helping to organize, enclose or separate secondary functions.

The secondary rooms and storage space are placed along a linear circulation axis following the slope of the terrain, while the important zones of the house open out towards the lake.

To see how House K. does zoning through screening made me realize that the similarity between this shared linear circulation by both differentiated groups, and the role of double-locked torus in Möbius House after I injected the concatenation of three spiraling diagonal spaces as one line of the house.

So, in similar way to House K., while my house proposal’s Raumplan line, where a continuous sequence of spaces are created with zoning based on artificial topographies, following the slope of terrain, in contrast, the other line spaces open out towards lake since I decided to locate my proposal to the site of House K.


site drawings: my proposal

plans sections

plan and section drawings of my proposal



In architecture the inspirations, quotations, references can be taken from the history of architecture, from the architectural works which were produced in past. Taking something as a reference, there can be used a few methods such as taking the thing directly as a quotation, reinterpretating, to adapt, to variate by giving references. Today, by using our case studies as source of quotation, we were assigned with a quick study; to make an architectural quotation. It is not must be the quoted thing to be physical thing, part of design or architectural elements, the ideas also can be taken as quote, but the thing that is going to be quote is supposed to be a something specifically belong to that case. A feature of the house or architect that makes it popular with, directly known with. Continue reading