Reading on “A Global History of Architecture”

I have read a number of chapter from the book: A Global History of Architecture, 2nd Edition by Francis D. K. Ching, Mark Jarzombek, Vikramaditya Prakash  with the recommendation of the lecturer of my History of Architecture class. I will write a little about the details  and notes which have stayed in my mind from both the book and the lecture.

Early cultures experienced various lives. The people lived in different places. They tried different methods to feed themselves. They created arts. They had several religious, discovered new things. There were changes among the different cultures. All of them underwent changes and developped over the years. In early cultures there were four ritual centers: Nabta Playa, Stonehenge, Göbekli Tepe, Niuheliang. Their purpose of existence was gathering places and being a religious centers for settled communities. The urbanization in Mesopotamia evolved a lot from 9000 BCE to 5000 BCE and the area almost became the largest network of villages and cities in the world. There was a community that contains two hundred people. They used mud and timber as their basic building materials. These houses were more improved than mere shelters for the reasons that the used materials for these houses, they were comsosed of rooms, decorations in the inside walls. Khirokitia in Cyprus (ca. 4000 and 2500 BCE) has a well-organized architecture tradition. The city wall of the Khirokitia turned into street after the extention of city. The community had a idea of mother goddess but there were no central village religious site. In early cultures, the raising grain, mining, the production of metals, exportation of salt, using tin with copper to generate bronze all of those explorations contributed to economy and progress. Catal Hüyük has some domestic, separate units. It does not have different shaped or functioned units. The units do not have fortification. Those are come together and make masses and walls themselves.  There is a cellular organization of attached units. The used material is mud-brick. Roofs are flat and the entrance is in the roof. There is no door and streets. There are other rooms for another functions like cook. There are layers of construction and it shows people constructed over and over. Stone circles are generations of the european developments. These megalithic architectural elements are cove, trilithon and dolmen. In the book, Cove  is explained as three standing stones, two on the sides and one at the back. Trilithon is explained as a strucure consisting of two upright stones supporting a horizontal lintel. Dolmen is explained as a burial tomb consisting of three or more upright stone and one or more capstones. Also the book says that the architectural expression of the circles is not uniform. Carnac, France has parallels and circular arrangements (cromlech) which are formed by putting the stones side by side. These continuously repeated activity means ritual and demarking the whole area into a ritual.

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